Without protection, astronauts can acquire acute and chronic health problems from prolonged radiation exposure. Females have a much higher risk of cancer from radiation, studies have found. That’s why they have lower career exposure limits for NASA.
According to the US Department of Energy, plutonium-238 works well as a space power source. When processed into a ceramic form, the plutonium in a radioisotope power system or “space battery” provides high power density.
According to a 2020 study, the radiation exposure on the Moon is 2.6 times higher than on board the ISS. While on Mars, astronauts would be exposed 40 to 50 times the average on Earth.