Without protection, astronauts can acquire acute and chronic health problems from prolonged radiation exposure. Females have a much higher risk of cancer from radiation, studies have found. That’s why they have lower career exposure limits for NASA.
According to a 2020 study, the radiation exposure on the Moon is 2.6 times higher than on board the ISS. While on Mars, astronauts would be exposed 40 to 50 times the average on Earth.
All careers that work with and around radiation sources are very careful. There are regulations on dose limits and radiation workers strictly follow them.