Without protection, astronauts can acquire acute and chronic health problems from prolonged radiation exposure. Females have a much higher risk of cancer from radiation, studies have found. That’s why they have lower career exposure limits for NASA.
The bursts of energy from various solar events constantly hits the Earth’s atmosphere and can actually affect communication systems and the biological DNA. This is why cosmic radiation is a concern for astronauts and space equipment.
According to a 2020 study, the radiation exposure on the Moon is 2.6 times higher than on board the ISS. While on Mars, astronauts would be exposed 40 to 50 times the average on Earth.
When we talk about radiation, we usually think first of X-rays, medical treatments and nuclear power plants. But the most perplexing and most interesting might just be radiation from outer space.